ROOT   Reference Guide
Searching...
No Matches
GenVector

Generic 2D, 3D and 4D vectors classes and their transformations (rotations).

GenVector, is a new package intended to represent vectors and their operations and transformations, such as rotations and Lorentz transformations, in 2, 3 and 4 dimensions. The 2D and 3D space are used to describe the geometry vectors and points, while the 4D space-time is used for physics vectors representing relativistic particles. These 2D,3D and 4D vectors are different from vectors of the Linear Algebra package which describe generic N-dimensional vectors. Similar functionality is currently provided by the CLHEP Vector and Geometry packages and the ROOT Physics Vector classes (TVector2, TVector3 and TLorentzVector). It is also re-uses concepts and ideas from the CMS Common Vector package.

In contrast to CLHEP or the ROOT physics libraries, GenVector provides class templates for modelling the vectors. There is a user-controlled freedom on how the vector is internally represented. This is expressed by a choice of coordinate system which is supplied as a template parameter when the vector is constructed. Furthermore each coordinate system is itself a template, so that the user can specify the underlying scalar type. In more detail, the main characteristics of GenVector are:

• Optimal runtime performances

We try to minimize any overhead in the run-time performances. We have deliberately avoided to have any virtual function and even virtual destructors in the classes and have inlined as much as possible all the functions. For this reason, we have chosen to use template classes to implement the GenVector concepts instead of abstract or base classes and virtual functions.

• Points and Vector concept

Mathematically vectors and points are two distinct concepts. They have different transformations, like vectors only rotate while points rotate and translate. You can add two vectors but not two points and the difference between two points is a vector. We then distinguish for the 2 and 3 dimensional case, between points and vectors, modeling them with different classes:

• Generic Coordinate System

The vector classes are based on a generic type of coordinate system, expressed as a template parameter of the class. Various classes exist to describe the various coordinates systems:

The angle eta is defined between [0, $$\pi$$] and phi between [- $$\pi$$, $$\pi$$]. The angles are expressed in radians.

Users can define the Vectors according to the coordinate type which is most efficient for their use. Transformations between the various coordinate systems are available through copy constructors or the assignment (=) operator. For maximum flexibility and minimize in some use case memory allocation, the coordinate system classes are templated on the scalar type. To avoid exposing templated parameter to the users, typedefs are defined for all types of vectors based an double's. See the 3D Vector, 3D Point, 2D Vector and Point, and LorentzVector classes for all the possible types of vector classes which can be constructed by the user with the available coordinate system types.

• Coordinate System Tag

The 2D and 3D points and vector classes can be associated to a tag defining the coordinate system. This can be used to distinguish between vectors of different coordinate systems like global or local vectors. The coordinate system tag is a template parameter of the ROOT::Math::DisplacementVector3D (and ROOT::Math::DisplacementVector2D) and ROOT::Math::PositionVector3D (and ROOT::Math::PositionVector2D) classes. A default tag, ROOT::Math::DefaultCoordinateSystemTag, exists for users who don't need this functionality.

• Transformations

The transformations are modeled using simple (non-template) classes, using double as the scalar type to avoid too large numerical errors. The transformations are grouped in Rotations (in 3 dimensions), Lorentz transformations and PoincarĂ© transformations, which are Translation/Rotation combinations. Each group has several members which may model physically equivalent trasformations but with different internal representations. Transformation classes can operate on all type of vectors using the operator() or the operator * and the transformations can also be combined via the operator *. In more detail the transformations available are:

Other main characteristics of the GenVector classes are:

• Minimal Vector classes interface

We have tried to keep the interface to a minimal level:

• We try to avoid methods providing the same functionality but with different names ( like getX() and x() ).
• we minimize the number of setter methods, avoiding methods which can be ambiguous and set the Vector classes in an inconsistent state. We provide only methods which set all the coordinates at the same time or set only the coordinates on which the vector is based, for example SetX() for a cartesian vector. We then enforce the use of transformations as rotations or translations (additions) for modifying the vector contents.
• The majority of the functionality, which is present in the CLHEP package, involving operations on two vectors, is moved in separated helper functions (see ROOT::Math::VectorUtil). This has the advantage that the basic interface will remain more stable with time while additional functions can be added easily.
• Naming Convention

As part of ROOT, the GenVector package adheres to the prescribed ROOT naming convention, with some (approved) exceptions, as described here:

• Every class and function is in the ROOT::Math namespace
• Member function names starts with upper-case letter, apart some exceptions (see later CLHEP compatibility)
• Compatibility with CLHEP Vector classes
• For backward compatibility with CLHEP the Vector classes can be constructed easily from a CLHEP HepVector or HepLorentzVector, by using a template constructor, which requires only that the classes implement the accessors x(), y() and z() (and t() for the 4D).
• we have decided to provide Vector member function with the same naming convention as CLHEP for the most used functions like x(), y() and z().
• Connection to Linear Algebra package

In some use cases, like in track reconstruction, it is needed to use the content of the vector and rotation classes in conjunction with linear algebra operations. We prefer to avoid any direct dependency to any Linear algebra package. However, we provide some hooks to convert to and from Linear Algebra classes.

• The vector and the transformation classes have methods which allow to get and set their data members (like SetCoordinates and GetCoordinates ) passing either a generic iterator or a pointer to a contiguous set of data, like a C array. This allows a easy connection with linear algebra package which allows creation of matrices using C arrays (like the ROOT TMatrix classes) or iterators ( SMatrix classes )
• Multiplication between Linear Algebra matrix and GenVector Vectors is possible by using the template free functions ROOT::Math::VectorUtil::Mult. This works for any Linear Algebra matrix which implement the operator(i,j) and with first matrix element at i=j=0.

## Packaging

This GenVector package is part of the index and it can be built as an independent package. A tar file can be downloaded from here.

A more detailed description of all the GenVector classes is available in this document.

## References

1. CLHEP Vector package (User guide and reference doc)
2. CLHEP Geometry package
3. ROOT Physics Vector classes
4. CMS Vector package

## Namespaces

namespace  ROOT::Math::VectorUtil
Global Helper functions for generic Vector classes.

## Classes

class  ROOT::Math::AxisAngle
AxisAngle class describing rotation represented with direction axis (3D Vector) and an angle of rotation around that axis. More...

class  ROOT::Math::Boost
Lorentz boost class with the (4D) transformation represented internally by a 4x4 orthosymplectic matrix. More...

class  ROOT::Math::BoostX
Class representing a Lorentz Boost along the X axis, by beta. More...

class  ROOT::Math::BoostY
Class representing a Lorentz Boost along the Y axis, by beta. More...

class  ROOT::Math::BoostZ
Class representing a Lorentz Boost along the Z axis, by beta. More...

class  ROOT::Math::Cartesian2D< T >
Class describing a 2D cartesian coordinate system (x, y coordinates) More...

class  ROOT::Math::Cartesian3D< T >
Class describing a 3D cartesian coordinate system (x, y, z coordinates) More...

class  ROOT::Math::Cylindrical3D< T >
Class describing a cylindrical coordinate system based on rho, z and phi. More...

class  ROOT::Math::CylindricalEta3D< T >
Class describing a cylindrical coordinate system based on eta (pseudorapidity) instead of z. More...

class  ROOT::Math::DefaultCoordinateSystemTag
DefaultCoordinateSystemTag Default tag for identifying any coordinate system. More...

class  ROOT::Math::DisplacementVector2D< CoordSystem, Tag >
Class describing a generic displacement vector in 2 dimensions. More...

class  ROOT::Math::DisplacementVector3D< CoordSystem, Tag >
Class describing a generic displacement vector in 3 dimensions. More...

class  ROOT::Math::EulerAngles
EulerAngles class describing rotation as three angles (Euler Angles). More...

class  ROOT::Math::GlobalCoordinateSystemTag
Tag for identifying vectors based on a global coordinate system. More...

class  ROOT::Math::LocalCoordinateSystemTag
Tag for identifying vectors based on a local coordinate system. More...

class  ROOT::Math::LorentzRotation
Lorentz transformation class with the (4D) transformation represented by a 4x4 orthosymplectic matrix. More...

class  ROOT::Math::LorentzVector< CoordSystem >
Class describing a generic LorentzVector in the 4D space-time, using the specified coordinate system for the spatial vector part. More...

class  ROOT::Math::Impl::Plane3D< T >
Class describing a geometrical plane in 3 dimensions. More...

class  ROOT::Math::Polar2D< T >
Class describing a polar 2D coordinate system based on r and phi Phi is restricted to be in the range [-PI,PI) More...

class  ROOT::Math::Polar3D< T >
Class describing a polar coordinate system based on r, theta and phi Phi is restricted to be in the range [-PI,PI) More...

class  ROOT::Math::PositionVector2D< CoordSystem, Tag >
Class describing a generic position vector (point) in 2 dimensions. More...

class  ROOT::Math::PositionVector3D< CoordSystem, Tag >
Class describing a generic position vector (point) in 3 dimensions. More...

class  ROOT::Math::PtEtaPhiE4D< ScalarType >
Class describing a 4D cylindrical coordinate system using Pt , Phi, Eta and E (or rho, phi, eta , T) The metric used is (-,-,-,+). More...

class  ROOT::Math::PtEtaPhiM4D< ScalarType >
Class describing a 4D cylindrical coordinate system using Pt , Phi, Eta and M (mass) The metric used is (-,-,-,+). More...

class  ROOT::Math::PxPyPzE4D< ScalarType >
Class describing a 4D cartesian coordinate system (x, y, z, t coordinates) or momentum-energy vectors stored as (Px, Py, Pz, E). More...

class  ROOT::Math::PxPyPzM4D< ScalarType >
Class describing a 4D coordinate system or momentum-energy vectors stored as (Px, Py, Pz, M). More...

class  ROOT::Math::Quaternion
Rotation class with the (3D) rotation represented by a unit quaternion (u, i, j, k). More...

class  ROOT::Math::Rotation3D
Rotation class with the (3D) rotation represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix. More...

class  ROOT::Math::RotationX
Rotation class representing a 3D rotation about the X axis by the angle of rotation. More...

class  ROOT::Math::RotationY
Rotation class representing a 3D rotation about the Y axis by the angle of rotation. More...

class  ROOT::Math::RotationZ
Rotation class representing a 3D rotation about the Z axis by the angle of rotation. More...

class  ROOT::Math::RotationZYX
Rotation class with the (3D) rotation represented by angles describing first a rotation of an angle phi (yaw) about the Z axis, followed by a rotation of an angle theta (pitch) about the Y axis, followed by a third rotation of an angle psi (roll) about the X axis. More...

class  ROOT::Math::Impl::Transform3D< T >
Basic 3D Transformation class describing a rotation and then a translation The internal data are a 3D rotation data (represented as a 3x3 matrix) and a 3D vector data. More...

class  ROOT::Math::Impl::Translation3D< T >
Class describing a 3 dimensional translation. More...